Developments in the scope of technology, without an exemption of all national boundaries, bring people close together. Since the discovery of writing, perheps 9.000 or 10.000 years ago, certain places in the world were the grounds for close contacts among different cultures, civilizations and religions.
The foundations of the various ancient civilizations on the lands of Anatolia, the settlement of the disples during the first quarter of Christianity in Anatolia or that of Jewish people who were subjected to the policy of annihilation in their homelands during the Mediaeval Ages inevitably provided the Anatolian region to embody various synagogues and churches besides the Islamic works of arts belonging to the Turkish nations.
The fact that these works of art have attained to our times as a result of our nations notion of respect and high esteem to other religions enable Turkey to gain an advantageous position among the other countries.
The evaluation of the interests of people to visit religious centers out of the consideration of regular fulfilments can be identified as Faith Tours in the scope of tourism phenomenon.
Yivli Minaret (Alaaddin Mosque, Center): It is in the city center of Antalya. It is the minaret of Alaaddin Mosque, which was converted into a mosque in 1230 by Seljuk Sultan, Alaaddin Keykubad.Catching one’s eyes at the first look, Yivli Minaret considered as a symbol of the city. As its structure is cut up into slices by bricks, and constructed with 8 pieces of semi - cylindrical shape, it is named as Yivli Minaret. Very thick body had gained an aesthetic structure due to these grooves. Turquoise and dark blue colored Allah and Mohammad words are written to every direction of the floor.
Kesik Minare Mosque (Korkut Mosque - Cami - i Kebir, Center): That piece of mosque art from Seljuk period, was previously constructed as Panagelia Church in the name of Virgin Mary by Byzantium during 5th A.D., and turned into a mosque by ?ehzade Korkut during Bayezit II. It is also known as Korkut Mosque or Cami-i Kebir due to this reason. It is renamed as Kesik Minaret as the mosque was destructed after the fire in 1851.
Kale Mosque (Sultan Suleyman Mosque, Alanya): It is at the west side of the shipyard of Alanya. It was constructed by Seljuk Sultan, Alaaddin Keykubad I. As it was re-constructed by Sultan Suleyman between 1530 and 1566, it is also known as Sultan Suleyman Mosque.
Saint Nicholas Church (Kale - Demre): Myra (Demre) is known as the place where Saint Nicholas, known as Santa Claus (Father Christmas) in Christianity world, had performed his duty as a bishop. Moreover the church was constructed during 6th century as a memorial to Saint Nicholas after his death.
Some remnants of Saint Nicholas tomb which has been stolen to Bari city by Italian sailors during the second half of our century are currently exhibited in the Antalya Museum. International Santa Claus (Father Christmas) Festival organized every year in Kale(Demre) and Ka? between December 6-8 turn into a symposium where foreigners have also participated in Antalya recently.
Aya Yorgi Church (Alanya): It is thought that the church within the Alanya Castle, was constructed by Byzantium during 6th century A.D.
Ulu Mosque (Center): It was constructed between in 1396 and 1400 by Y?ld?r?m Bayezit, fully made up of cut stone, with very thick and high walls, 12 heavy four edged grade, with pendantives as of 20 domes.
It is the most classical and monumental sample of the multi - domed mosques. It has the biggest size (318 square meters) among all of the Turkish mosques with its rich and roomy space. Its balcony with small tenon panels, finely processed with Greek and palmettes, parapet networks with geometrical samples, inscription on its front side and networked corolla is a master piece of art of transition from Seljuk style to Ottoman style.
According to the rumor related with the construction of ?ad?rvan; some lands should have been nationalized for construction of Ulu Mosque. Sad?rvan s place was belonged to a Jewish woman. This woman who did not want to give her land had seen in her dream one night that everybody was running to the same direction. She curiously asked them where they were going, and took the respond of “Heaven!”. She also wanted to run but they stopped her, as she was not giving her land. Jewish woman who had impressed much from this dream, had gave her land next day on condition that they would build a sadirvan.
When the construction process of the mosque discontinue due to financial problems, Christian and Jewish communities supplied a certain amount of money, then in return Muslims used the stones on which David’s Star and Cross signs are engraved on the windows of the mosque to show their gratitude.
Emir Sultan Mosque and Tomb (Center): A famous scientist, Emir Sultan had come to Bursa in 1391, and had married with the daughter of Y?ld?r?m Bayezit, Hundi Fatma Hatun. Emir Sultan Mosque and tomb was cosntructed by his wife during Murat II period. It is on a hill east of Bursa, adjacent to Emir Sultan Graveyard.
There is a tomb with eight edges near to them on the north direction. Today s shape of Emir Sultan Mosque, a beautiful sample of mosque type with single dome in a courtyard with a ?ad?rvan, was constructed in 1804 during Sultan Selim III period.
Muradiye Kulliye (Center): It is within a huge park in Muradiye district. Kulliye, which was constructed by Sultan Murat II in between 1424 and 1426, composed of a mosque, theology school, charitable establishment, hamam and 12 tombs.
The mosque has an angular shape which was used widely during the primary period in Ottoman architecture. Its niches and balconies are from 18th century, and it is one of Baroque style. Its entrance door is one of the most beautiful samples of wood work. There are 12 pieces of tombs within Muradiye Kulliye, which are constructed in the name of Murat II and his family.
Orhan Mosque and Kulliye (Center): Kulliye, which is constructed by Orhan Bey in between 1339 and 1340, is composed of mosque, theology school, charitable establishment, school, hamam and inn (Emir Inn) structures. It is on the east part of Ulu Mosque, and one of the first samples of Ottoman Kulliye.
Orhan Mosque is one of the most important structures of early Ottoman period in Bursa. Twin arches at both sides are one of the most important characteristics of the structure. It was constructed with two rows of bricks and one row of stone. Brick work on its external surface is also very interesting.
Hudavendigar Mosque and Kulliye (Center): Kulliye which was constructed by Sultan Murat I (Hüdavendigar) between 1366 and 1385 in Cekirge district, is composed of a mosque, theology school, charitable establishment, tomb and hamam.
Unique in Ottoman architecture, the two storied complex s first floor is a mosque while the second floor is a theology school. Architecture of the structure, which has an appearance of a palace with its imposing external minaret, is not certain. Two layered forehead with upper layer porticos, opened with double steep arches with middle column aside and front, is gaining an imposing panorama reminding the Venetian palaces. ?ad?rvan under the dome, whose middle part is open, creates a harmonious atmosphere with gentle splashes.
Oposite to Hudavendigar Mosque, there is the tomb of the Sultan Murat II (Hudavendigar), who died during military service in 1389 in Cassava War I. The epitaph of the tomb constructed by Y?ld?r?m Bayezid is dated 1722.
Yildirim Bayazit Kulliye (Center): The complex constructed in between 1390 and 1399 in Yildirim district at the east of the city is composed of a mosque, theology school, darulsifa (cure house), tomb, inn, hamam, charitable establishment, pleasure - house, kitchen, service rooms and stable structures. The mosque at the middle of the kulliye is one of the most monumental example of the sided mosques, and it has a cure house dated 1399. Ottoman architecture had started to find a unique building structure style with this mosque.
The tomb, which is single structured with its inscription is on the north east of the mosque. The tomb which was constructed to Mimar Ali bin Hüseyin by Yildirim Bayezit s son Suleyman Han in 1406, is the first sample of Ottoman tombs with portico.
Yesil Mosque (Center): Adornments of the mosque, which is constructed by Celebi Sultan Mehmet between 1419 and 1420, was constructed in 1424 during Murat II period. It is also known as Yesil Mosque due to the green turquoise and tiles used on adornments. Its architect is Haci Ivaz Pasa. It is one of the most important Ottoman period structure in Bursa, and the mosque is famous with its adornments much more than its architecture. Tile adornments are the most important characteristics of the mosque.
Yesil Tomb (Center): Structure, which is the symbol of Bursa, is one of the most beautiful samples of Ottoman tomb architecture. Octagonal structure, to which you can climb via a marble stair, is covered by a lead dome perched on a high hoop. It is a unique structure with its tile adornments. Its fully tile covered balcony is a master piece of art. One of the most beautiful samples of the Ottoman wooden work,the door was built by transition technique of walnut tree, adorned with geometrical motifs and has inscription on it.
Gerus synagogue (Center): It is located at Arap Sukru Street. It was constructed by the first Jewish group who settled in Bursa after they had been expeled from Spain in 14th century and welcomed by Ottoman Emperor Selim II. and brought to the region. The name of the synagogue that was derived from a word in the Hebrew language Gerus meaning expelled has a special sense from that point of view. The synagogue reaching to our times in a god condition is in service of the Jewish community.
Mayor Synagogue (Center): It is located at Arap Sukru Street. It was constructed by the other Jewish communities welcomed by the Ottoman Empire and migrated from the Mayorka Island, Spain and settled in Bursa in 15th century. Moreover as they inspired from the name of the island they had departed, they gave the name Mayor to the synagogue that they constructed. The inital date of the construction is known to be 15th century. Vivid designs on the walls and the ceiling of the interior section of the synagogue draw attention.
Etz Ahayim Synagogue (Center): Located at Arap Sukru Street and constructed in the beginnings of 14th century, the name of the synagogue means Life Tree in the Hebrew Language. It is peculiar in that it is the first synagogue to be constructed during Ottoman period. An imperial decree was announced during the reign of Orhan Bey, conqueror of Bursa, and the structure of the synagogue was approved.
Iznik Green Mosque (Iznik): The mosque, which is the most important monumental structure of Ottoman architecture in Iznik, is at the east of province and near to the Lefke Gate. It is constructed by Çandarl? Hayrettin Pa?a in between 1378 - 1398.
Haci Ozbek Mosque (Bazaar Mosque, Iznik): It is within bazaar in ?znik. It is constructed in 1333, and is the oldest inscription having Ottoman mosque.
Ayasofya Museum (?znik): It is in the middle of the city, and constructed in 4th century. Byzantium church, turned into a mosque during Orhan Gazi.The museum is where the 7th Ecumenic Council of high esteem for Christians was arranged.It is a collapsed structure today.
Senatus (Consule Palace, Iznik): Senatus, which is the first Consul meeting performed, which is deemed as very important by Christians, is also named as Consul palace. Ruinsof the piece of art which is at lake gate side, are below the lake waters.
Goncali Church (Laodicia Church): Laodicia Antic City, which is six kilometers north of Denizli, is founded on the hills between the current location of Eskihisar and Goncal? Villages. It took its name from Selekoses King, Antiochos II(250 B. C.) wife, Laodice, who was ruling the region. It was formerly known as Rhoas or Dios.
Two theaters, stadium, basilica, nymphaeum, temple, street with statues are monumental structures constructed during Roman age among the main ruins, which can be seen at the surface today.
The time when Laodicia had reached its highest wealth level coincided to the Roman and early Christianity period, and late Bizantium age. City was also improved as a therapy center at the same time due to the curing characteristics of hot water in city, which was coming from a foundation near Hierapolis.
As it is understood from the Holy Bible and other documents the natives of the city was totally indifferent to the new religion. First missionaries had believed that this behavior stemmed from their wealth, which prevented them to share. Laodicia was an important bishop center where Ecumenical Committee had met during 4th century A. D. In addition to this, its name is mentioned as one of the seven churches in revelation part of the last section of the Holy Bible. It means “Sound of Public” in Latin.
St. Philippe Marytyrion (Ottogon, Pamukkale): It was constructed in the name of one of the 12 apostles of Jesus Christ, St. Philippe, and on a high hill at the north of Hierapolis antique city center. St. Philippe had firstly come to Hierapolis in 80 A. D. and wanted to extend the believers of Christianity, however he had been killed at the place where Martyrion had been constructed. It is known that Martyrion was constructed in the memory of St. Philippe during the end of 4th century or at the beginning of 5th century. The grave of the St. Philippe is thought to be within this central chamber.
Hierapolis St. Cathedral: It is in the city center of Hierapolis, between Agora and Theater and north junction point of Column Street.
Church: Excavation of the church, which is approximately 150 m. away from the north of Hierapolis Theater, was performed during previous years. The church is dated to the 5th century with its rectangular plan.
Ulu Mosque (Sultan Selim Mosque, Center): Ulus Mosque, which is known as the oldest structure of the city, is constructed in 16th century, and reflecting the initial period architecture of Islamism. It demolished in 1987, and reconstructed at the same style.
Habibi Neccar Mosque (Center): Habibi Neccar Mosque is known as the first constructed mosque of the city. Mosque, which was constructed instead of an ancient Roman temple during Baybars period, was reconstructed during Ottoman period in 17th century as it had been damaged by an earthquake in 9th century, but minaret had hold its former appearance. Under the structure reflecting the Ottoman architecture, there are three cemeteries that the public visit. This place is regarded as holy as it is thought to be the location where the event of Habib-un Neccar mentioned in the Koran occured.
Magnificent Suleyman Mosque (Belen Mosque, Belen): It is constructed in 1553 by Kanuni Sultan Suleyman in Belen. Mosque is a cubic structure at west of caravansary.
Sokullu Mehmet Pa?a Kulliye (Payas): It is a kulliye, which is composed of magnificent structures primarily a caravanserai and bazaar, hamam, mosque, theology school and castle. In the inscription on doors of Caravansary, it is written that it is constructed in 1574 “for being a permanent piece of art on mortal world” by grand vizier of Ottoman ruler, Yavuz Sultan Selim, Sokullu Mehmet Pasa. Courtyard of the mosque is organized as a theology school.
St. Pierre Church (Center): It is in the Antakya - Reyhanl? road and at feet of Habibi Neccar Mountain. It is believed that St. Pierre, which was turned into a church while it was a natural cavern, is the first church of the world. Also it was firstly called the persons who are following Jesus Chirst, as "Chirstian" in the history in this church.
Church, is at important religious center as being the place where one of the 12 saints of Jesus Christ, St. Pierre tried to spread the Christianity after death of Jesus Christ. In 1963, it is announced as a hajj place by Papa VI. Paul. Every year on 29th of June a ceremony is performed here.
There are mosaic residues at the floor and frisks on the walls of the church.
St. Simon Monastery (Samandag): Baptism place, cistern and other architectural ruins can be seen in Saint Simon Monastery which is known to the center of the Leaving World Sect. Church.
It was constructed in the name of St. Simon in VI. A.D. It is believed that St. Simon retired into seclusion on 20 meters high column and lived there for 45 days. This experience of St. Simon has been recorded to the Guinness Book of Records. The pedestal of the column can also be seen today.
Eyup Sultan Mosque: It is the first mosque constructed in Istanbul after conquer. It is constructed in 1458 by Fatih Sultan Mehmet, together with mausoleum. Today s mosque is the mosque constructed under supervision of Huseyin Efendi with demolishing the former mosque until to its base in 1800.
Eyup Sultan Mausoleum: Halit Bin Zeyd (Hz. Eyup) the standard bearer of the Prophet Mohammed, and accepted the Islam first while he came to Mecca, is lying in the mausoleum, constructed in 1458. Eyup, during the seventh Arabic siege of the Istanbul, had participated to the war in the army leaded by one of the Emevi rulers Ebu Sufyan and martyred. Eyup s cemetery outside the ramparts is found by the teacher of Fatih, Aksemsettin after the conquer of Istanbul. Fatih, had constructed a mausoleum on this cemetery and a mosque near to it.
Fatih Mosque: The Imperial Fatih Mosque, constructed in between 1462 and 1470, bears the name of the Ottoman conqueror of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmet, and is the site of his mausoleum. Standing atop another of Istanbul s hills, its vast size and great complex of religious buildings - medreses, hospices, baths, a hospital, a caravanserai and a library make it well worth a visit.
Suleymaniye Mosque and Kulliye: The cascading domes and four slender minarets of the Imperial Suleymaniye Mosque dominate the skyline on the Golden Horn s west bank. Considered the most beautiful of all imperial mosques in Istanbul, it was built in between 1550 and 1557 by Sinan, the renowned architect of the Ottoman Empire s golden age. Erected on the crest of a hill, the building is conspicuous for its great size, emphasized by the four minarets that rise from each comer of the courtyard. Inside the mihrab (prayer niche showing the direction to Mecca) and the mimber (pulpit) are made of finely carved white marble and exquisite stained-glass windows, coloring the incoming streams of light. It was in the gardens of this complex that Suleyman and his wife, Hurrem Sultan (Roxelane), had their mausolea built, and near here also Sinan built his own tomb. The mosque complex also includes four medreses, or theological schools, a school of medicine, a caravanserai, a Turkish bath, and a kitchen and hospice for the poor.
Beyazit Mosque: It is at the square of Beyazit, which is mentioned with its name. This great mosque and its kulliye, (theology school, school, imaret, caravansary and hamam), is constructed by son of Fatih, II. Bayezit in 1501 - 1506. It has two minarets which are 87 meters away from each other. Plan of the Beyazit Mosque is similar to Aya Sofya. But it is separated from it with especially a perfect architectural application which includes a different characteristic having worship order of a culture.
Mimar Sinan Mausoleum: It is at the courtyard of Suleymaniye mosque. Head Architect Sinan (dec. 1588) is constructed this attractive, beautiful and simple outstanding mausoleum for himself. Structure, is reflecting the simplicity and elegancy, which complies with the geniusness of the master.
Sultan Selim Mosque: It is around Edirnekapi, at Sultan Selim region. It is completed in 1522 during Kanuni Sultan Suleyman period. In the writing at main entrance, it is recorded that its construction is ordered by I. Selim, and according to some sources it is said that it is constructed by his son in the memory of his father.
Haseki Mosque: Architect of this piece of art which is constructed in 1538 in the memory of Kanuni Sultan Suleyman s wife, Hurrem Sultan, is Sinan. There is an elegant kulliye composed of theology school, darussifa, imaret and public fountain, around it. It is widened in 1612 during I. Ahmet period.
Yeni Mosque: It is in Eminonu. When mosque construction, which is started in 1597 by III. Mehmet s mother, Safiye Sultan, had reached to window level, ruler and his mother had died. Uncompleted construction is completed with the desire of IV. Mehmet s mother, Turhan Sultan in 1663.
Sahzade Mosque: It is in Sarachane across the Municipality Palace. Kanuni, ordered Mimar Sinan to construct a mosque in memory of his son Mehmet who died in 1543, and construction started in 1544, completed in 1548. Mosque, which is at the city center, is in the middle of a complex composed of theology schools, mausoleums, tabhane and imaret.
Nuruosmaniye Mosque: It is in Nuruosmaniye entrance of closed bazaar. Construction this mosque is commenced by I. Mahmut in 1748, and completed in 1755 during III. Osman due to his death.
Rustempasa Mosque: It is constructed to Mimar Sinan in 1561 by one of the viziers of Kanuni, Rustem Pasa. As the place at Eminonu is both hollow and a commercial center, Sinan, had opened inns and shops under mosque.
Sokullu Mehmet Pasa Mosque: It is in Kadirga. It is constructed to Mimar Sinan in 1671 by III. Selim s daughter, Esmehan Sultan, in memory of her husband, Vizier Mehmet Pasa. Inside of the mosque is adorned with the most beautiful tiles of the period till to the feet of the dome. Balcony cone is also tiled.
Yeni Valide Mosque: It is in Uskudar. It is constructed as a kulliye by III. Ahmet s mother, Gulnuz Sultan on 1710. It has two minarets and double niches.
Bezm-i Alem Valide Sultan (Dolmabahce) Mosque: As it is understood from the inscription of Poet Ziver on the courtyard s door, Valide Sultan had started the construction of the mosque, and her son Abdulmecit had completed it in 1853.
In 1848, its siege ramparts are removed and a naval museum is established within the mosque.
Imrahor Ilyas Bey Mosque (Studios Monastery): It is constructed between Samatya and Yedikule on 463. The building, which is one of the former buildings of Istanbul, is devoted to Baptist Yohannes. The 13th century floor mosaics can be seen on the floor of the building. After the conquest of Istanbul, the structure was converted in to a mosque by Ilyas Bey in 1486. Afterwards the building had been exposed to various damages as a result of various earthquakes and fires, and in 1908 its roof collapsed and rendered any kind of restoration impossible; therefore the mosque still bares its destructed view.
Former Imaret Mosque (Pantepoptes Monastery Church): It is on the slope, which descents from Fatih to Halic, and belongs to the beginning of II. century. It is constructed by I. Alexios s mother, Anna Dalaena. It is the most beautiful sample of period.
Neve Salom Synagogue: Name of the synagogue, which is at Galata, on Buyuk Hendek Street, means Peace Oasis. 25th March, 1951 opened this synagogue is still the most modern and magnificent synagogue of ?stanbul, and witnessed a lot of religious ceremony, such as wedding, bar, mitzva (maturity ceremony) and funeral, or Head Rabbinate Appointment (Hahamba?ilik Isad) ceremonies.
Italian Synagogue: It is in Galata, at Poet Ziya Pasa Slope. This synagogue, which is especially Italian and Austrian nationality holding Hebrews, who live in Ottoman Empire, begin to serve in 1886.
Askenazi Synagogue: This synagogue is among the other synagogues of Jewish people belonging to Askenaz community living in Istanbul and the only one that has still been in service.
Loacted at Yuksek Kaldirim Street at Galata, the synagogue was constructed by Askenaz people of Austrian origin. With its facade in European style and the decoration of its Ehal and Teva (prayer desk) in wooden pagoda style with Polish influence,the synagogue displays a different view when compared to traditional Sefarad and Romaniot synagogues.
Zulfaris Synagogue: Located at Galata quarter and have been present from the 17th century, the current building of the synagogue belongs to 19th century.
The synagogue, in which religious ceremonies were carried out before the construction of Neve Salam Synagogue, have been not in service recently. However within the frame of the 1992 celebrations organization, the synagogue is determined to be converted into 500 Years Tranquil Life Musuem without any effect on the religious appearance of the structure.
Ahrida Synagogue: Located at Balat, the synagogue was built by those who had migrated to Macedonia from Ahri borough in 15th century. Having a similar shape to a ship s bow, Teva (prayer desk) of the synagogue to some resembles to Noah s Ship while others compare it to Ottoman galleys that carried Sefarad immigrants to the Ottoman piers from Spain. Being in service over 500 years, the synagogue has been exposed to some fires and repaired. Moreover, embracing the most ancient appearance among the others included within frame of 500th annual celebrations program me, it was restored in Lale (Tulip) Period baroque style.
Yanbol Synagogue: Located at Balat and built and named by the people migrating from Yanbolu borough in Macedonia, the synagogue is the second ancient Jewsih structure of the region. The paintings on the ceiling of the synagogue are though to be depicting Yanbolu Borough.
Haydarpasa Hemdat Israel Synagogue: Located at a close distance to Haydarpasa Train Station,and derived its name from its story of foundation, the synagogue was put into service in Sept.3, 1989. That is the name Hemdat Israel which means "the mercy of the sons of Israel was inspired from the arabic words "Hamid" and Hemdat written on the synagogue as the sign of gratitude for Abdulhamit II. who had surpassed the chaos let by those who were against the construction of the synagogue.
Etz Ahayim Synagogue (Ortakoy): Becoming an appropriate residential for the Jewsih people who settled there after the great bedesten (bazaar) fire in 1618, Ortakoy where Jewish people already had lived from the ancient times, formed a model of harmony with three celestial religion performed in the mosque, synagogue and church located at a triangular area. Signifying the meaning of Life Tree, Ortakoy Etz Ahayim Synagogue dated back to 17th century, which is derived from the documents of maintenance. The building was totally destructed in the fire in 1941 and today only the Ehal (case in which the manuscript parchments of the copy of the Pentateuch were kept) at the side of the garden of the building facing the sea have remained.
Isa Bey Mosque ( Izmir-Selcuk): The mosque, which is on the Ayasuluk hill, at west slope of the St. Jean Bassilica, is a Seljukian piece of art. It was constructed in 1375 by Aydinoglu Isa Bey.
Hisar Mosque (Izmir-Center): Built on the center of the Kemeralti-Hisaronu square in 1592, the mosque was the biggset mosque in Izmir. It is among the monumental mosques having one storeies. It was built by hewn stones. Ahuge one in the middle, it was encircled with many small domes. Interior sections of the mosque reflect the most precious styles of Ottoman art.
Birgi (Izmir-Odemis): It is 9km from Odemis. Having the outstanding samples of Ottoman and Seljuk architecture, the city has been added to the list of World Heritage List. The structure includes Imam-? Birgivi Tomb and Medresseh, Darul Hadis Medresseh, Guduk Minare Mescit (small mosque), Ulu Mosque and Ayd?nogullar? Tomb.
Izmir Church (Center): It is said that Izmir Church, which is the second one of the seven churches mentioned in Holy Bible, means "Followed" and "Be Faithful". The period, when Izmir Church was important, is II. and III. Centuries A. D. Ruins of this church are mentioned as at Cesmelik district, at the sameplace with St. Polikarp church by some archeologists and Christian religious writers.
Karatas Beth Israel Synagogue: The synagogue, which is on Mithat Pasa Boulvard, is witnessing marriage ceremonies with its last century particular Victoria style architecture.
House of Virgin Mary (Izmir- Selçuk): It is thought to be constructed during IV. Century A. D. of this place also named as "Panaya Kapulu" by Christians on 420 meters high Mount Bulbul which is nine kilometers away from Selçuk. On the niche part, which remembers an oven, precious heart of Jesus Christ is represented. Such before the crucifixion, Jesus Christ entrusted his mother to his friend and disciples. As St. Jean thought that to stay in Jerusalem would be dangerous for Virgin Mary after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, he took her here. Though these rumours are confused with legends, there are evidences proving that these have great deals to do with reality. Having undertaken a sacred mission as to spread Christianity, St. Jean chose Efes as the biggest city of the era, and secluded Virgin Mary at a hut in a wood of trees very close together on the skirts Bulbul Mountain because he did not want Virgin Mary to live in a place where idol worshippers would annoy her.
Every day St. Jean secretly visited her and took to her food. It has been considered that Virgin Mary lived and died there when she was 101years old. Then St. Jean buried Virgin Mary again at this secret place which was unknown to anyone except himself. After Christianity became world wide, a church with "Cross" like layout was constructed of this sacred place of Virgin Mary.
This house is declared as the holy place of Christianity by Papacy in 1967. A ceremony is organized here during the first Sunday of following 15th of August, and people, who came here become hadji.
St. Jean Basilica (Izmir-Selçuk): Perched on Ayasuluk hill, it was constructed by Byzantium Emperor Justinian as a dedication to St. Jean in VI A.D. In the middle of the basilica, under the dome and at the eastern side of the grave of St. Jean which is lower than the ground level, there are the places of the priests. These structures are separated from the church with their half squares. At the northern section of the cemetery, monograms of the Emperor Justinian and his wife were perched on a restored pedestals of a church decorated with the frescos of the paintings of the saints.
Bergama Church (Izmir-Bergama): It is among one of the seven churches mentioned in the Holy Bible and the location of which is known and the basilica known as "Red Courtyard" by the people of the Pergamum carries the meanings of "Serapien"( as it was devoted to the God Serapis) and "Where on earth or in heavens". After the death of Jesus Christ, it had a crucial position in between the years 313-500.
Ulu Mosque (Sultan Mosque-Center): It is in the city center, Cami Kebir District, just adjacent to Closed Bazaar. It is known as "Ulu Mosque" among natives, and referred as "Sultan Mosque" in former records. Ulu Mosque, is constructed between 1134 - 1143 by 3rd ruler of Danismentliler, Melik Mehmet gazi, who made Kayseri his capital city. It is repaired during Seljukian Ruler, I. Giyaseddin Keyhusrev period on 1205 by Yagibasanoglu Muzaffereddin Mahmut.
Gulluk Mosque (Center): It is in the city, at south west of Duvenonu district, at Guluk Sub district. Danismentliler belonging mosque and theology school composed this structure is constructed by Muzaffereddin Mahmut s daughter, "Atsiz Elti Hatun", in 1211. Very beautiful tile mosaics adorned niche, is still standing as one of the pice of art of Seljukian tile art.
Lale Mosque (Center): It is in Lale District, and constructed by Lala Musluhiddin Pasa, and belongs to Seljukian period.
Ayetel Kursi, which is written on seljukian style wooden niche is preserving its originality. Its minaret is constructed afterwrads, and there is a mausoleum at east and a hamam at north of this mosque.
Kursunlu Mosque (Center): The mosque, which is constructed by Haci Ahmet Pasa, is one of the pieces of art of Mimar Sinan, and has classical Ottoman architecture style, and constructed in 1585 according to its inscription. Marble masonry, niche, balcony and its pulpit is original.
Doner Kumbet (Center): This kumbert, which is constructed in memory of Princes Sah Cihan Hatun, is a piece of art, which draw attention with its uniquely characteristics. It is one of the most beautiful samples of Seljukian pieces of art in Kayseri. Various geometrical shapes, mythological creatures are carved as relieves on each side of polygonal shaped kumbet.
Kutlug Hatun Mausoleum (Center): It is at east of Hunat Mosque. This kumbet, which is constructed with the order of Sah Kutlug Hatun in 1349, is the master piece of its kind in Kayseri with big and adorned colonial structure.
Mahperi Hatun Mausoleum (Center): It is between Hunat Mosque and theology school, and a unique piece of art.
Sircali Kumbet (Center): Cylindrical shaped kumbet, is made up of cut stones with very smooth and master masonry.
Cifte Kumbet (Center): There are two kumbets on Sivas road and one kilometers away from Kayseri. One of these is demolished with no trace, and second one is well preserved and still standing today. It is constructed in 1247 by her brothers in memory of Melike Adile Hatun.
Soganli Valley Churches: Within the limits of the Soganli Valley Yesilhisar district, it is 40 km from southeast of Urgup. Composed of two sections, the valley had continuously received immigrants starting from the Roman Period. The rock formations resembling to cones on the slopes of the valley were used as cemeteries by Romans while Byzantines made use of them as churches.
There are nearly 50 churches and caves in the region. They can be listed as follows; Karabas, Gok, Tokali, Karanlik, Yilanli, Kubbeli, Balikli, Geyikli and St. Barbara Churches.
Karabas Church (Yesilhisar): It is located on the right slope of the Soganli Valley. Besides Karabas Church, the rocky places located there include graves and constantly inhabited residences of the priest. Having been dyed in different times with several techniques, the church dated 11th century.
On the walls of the church there are the descriptions of Deesis, Herald, Birth, Presenting Jesus to the Temple, Metamorphosis, Crucifixion, his ascend from the cross, his descend to heaven and some other descriptions of the saints.
Saint Barbara Church (Tahtali Church): It is at the end of valley lying through west from Soganli Village. On its walls, appearance of the Prophet, Deesis, Herald, Visit, proof of the virginity, voyage via Beytullahim, Birth, Jesus descent to hell, seven sleepers and saint pictures are present.
Kubbeli Church: The church, whose domes are established with the adornment of Fairy Chimneys, shows an advanced architectural characteristic with its tonoz, abscissas.
Mevlana Mausoleum and Dervish Convent (Center): The idea of constructing such a structure was originated from the will of Sultan-ul Ulema Bahaeddin Veledin, father of Mevlana, when he wanted to be buried there after his death in 1230 and the structure turn out to take its shape as a single tomb was built upon his grave. After the death of Mevlana, a tomb was built there by Pervane Muiniddin and his wife Gurcu Hatun.
The tomb has taken its current dervish convent structure as further religious and social architectural additions were carried out. Succeeding to the death of Mevlana that is from 1273 improvements as to the dervish convent building continued and it was converted into a museum after the Proclamation of the Republic. In the museum there are properties belonging to Mevlana and other dervishes as well as valuable samples of hand-painted erchiefs,handwritings, ornaments, wooden works of art and instruments of the Mevlevi music, carpets and pileless carpets.
The most appealing section of the tomb is the Kubbe-i Hadra (Green Vault) above the graves of Hz. Mevlana and his son Sultan Veledin. Inside of the structure built by Architect Bedreddin during Seljuk Period in 1396 is coated with green tiles. The inner walls of the tomb were embellished with plaster relief and designs. The sarcophagus of Hz. Mevlana is one of the superior samples of wooden crafts of the period. Yet this high sarcophagus is above that of his father Sultan-ul Ulema Bahaeddin Veledin s. On the north side of the tomb, there are Semahane( where Mevlevi dervishes perform the sema) and a small mosque constructed by Kanuni Sultan Suleyman in 16th century.
Seb-i Aruz Pool, on the other hand, is before the kitchen of the dervish convent. Within the frame of the annual commemoration ceremonies organized in the name of Mevlana, whirling dances of the Mevlevi dervishes (sema) around the pool are performed in certain days called as Seb-i Aruz (Feast Day). Since the death of Hz. Mevlana was considered as a reunion with God, these days have been renamed as feast days. Most above all Hz. Mevlana is a great humanist, a perfect advocate of peace and a sage figure.
Alaaddin Mosque (Center): Konya is on Alaaddin Hill. The first Seljuk work of art dating back to 12th century, Alaaddin Mosque is not an organic whole since its plan has exposed to various changes in the course of time. On the magnificent pulpit of the first mosque made of ebony tree and dated 1155, there are epitaphs of Sultan Mesut and Kilicaslan II and the names of Master Mengumberti on them.
Two different periods are observed in the mosque which is thought to have been constructed in accordance to the superiority of its pulpit as the most ancient Seljuk work of art.
Aziziye Mosque (Center): As the first construction built by Mustafa Pasa in 1676 was destructed by a big fire in 1867, this mosque that has remained till today was constructed through the contributions of Abdulaziz and his mother Pertevniyal Hatunun in 1872.
Ince Minareli Mosque and Theology School (Center): On the western slope of the Alaaddin Hill, the theology school (medresseh) was constructed by Seljuk Vizier Sahip Ata in 1260. Despite of the splendid view of the crown gate, it is a plain and unadorned structure.
Sublime stone masonry presenting the grandeur of the Seljuk architecture demonstrates the most praiseworthy art since the French gothic.
Iplikci Mosque and Theology School (Center): On the eastern side of the Alaaddin Hill, it is located on Alaaddin Road. According to the endowment of the medresseh, it is estimated that the first structure was constructed by the Vizier Semseddin Altunbanin (Altiapa) during Kilicaslan II. (through end of the 12th Century). The mosque and medresseh( theology school) was extended and restored by Haci Ebu Bekir in 1332.
Mihrab, (niche of a mosque indicating the direction of Mecca) encircled with two belts adorned with intermingling geometric motifs of tiles with the colors of turquoise and violet; and curled ornamentations (widely used by the Seljuks of Anatolia) made of turquoise and dark blue tiles, is among the most oldest examples of this kind in Anatolia. This edifice is of high esteem since Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi gave lectures in that place.
Sahip Ata Kulliye (Center): Recent researches have revealed the fact that Sahip Ata Cami instead stretched out to the facade with double minarets and was a wooden mosque perched on wooden piers. The inscriptions stated that the construction of the building had been commenced by Seljuk Vizier Sahip Ata and that it was a masterpiece of architect Koluk Bin Abdullah. In this respect, it was the oldest Seljuks mosque to be known with its wooden piers.
Completed in 1283, the tomb and the dervish convent later restored to its recent form as a kulliye which is a complex of building adjacent to a mosque. Only the magnificent mihrap (niche of the mosque indicating the direction of Mecca) decorated with dazzling mosaic tiles remains to our present times.
Lala Mustafa Pa?a Kulliye (Ilgin): Kulliye is composed of three sections as a mosque, imaret (kitchen) and an inn. The mosque constitutes a part of the kulliye covering a wide section in the bazaar.
Built by Lala Mustafa Pasa in 1576, the kulliye was in some sources said to have been one of the works of art of Mimar Sinan.
Esrefoglu Mosque (Beysehir): On the eastern section of Beysehir District, it is located at ?çeri Quarter. It was constructed between the years in 1296-1299 and the most authentic and the biggest wooden mosques in Anatolian region.
Sublime stone and wooden masonry, designs, adornments of mosaic tiles all together create a harmonious outcome with the latest and the most mature style of Seljuk art.
One of the most splendid samples of tiled minarets, the mihrab of the mosque completely adorned with turquoise, dark blue and violet mosaic tiles is of 6 meters height and 5.50 meters width. The structure reflects the flavor of Beylikler Devri (Esrefoglu Domain) with its rich stone masonry, glazed tiles on its interior space, fortifications and wooden decorations on the minber (hooded dais).
Nasreddin Hoca Tomb (Aksehir): On the eastern part of the ramparts of Aksehir province, the tomb is located at the cemetery named with the name of the city. The present appearance of the tomb was acquired by the Aksehir Head Official Sukru Bey in 1905 as the structure has had difficulty in retaining its authentic view during series of maintainers. Only the main tomb of the ancient structure has remained. On the head end of the sarcophagus of the master of humour, there is the date of his death written reversed as 386 symbolizing his jokes.
Sille Siyata Monastery (Center): Among the important centers of the early Christian period, this monastery is 8 km northwest from the center of Konya province. Among the various tombs engraved to rocks by monks, Akmanastir Haglos Kharitan (St. Choritan),leads among the others and one of the primary monasteries in the world.
Akmanastir (Haglos Kharitan, Sille): It is located between Konya and Sille. Having been composed of buildings forming a circular structure around the engraved rooms, the monastery was constructed in 274 as a dedication to Saint Horion.
Haghia Eleni Church (Sille): Located at Sille Subdistrict and constructed in 327 during the reign of Emperor Konstantinus, it was the first Christian church to be constructed in Anatolian Region. The church is adorned with the figures of Jesus, Virgin Mary and the Apostles. On the interior door of the church, which has been restored and not been in service currently, there is a poem written in Greek language by Turkish expressions stating that the building was constructed in the name of Mikail Arhonkolan.
Lystra (Meram-Hatun Saray): It is located at Zolkara which is in the west of Konya, at 1 km distance to Hatunsaray town and 400 meters inside from the right side of the main road.
During the reign of the Roman Emperor Agust, Lystra joined the colonized cities of Nykaoline region (6 B.C). Later on it became an important center of episcopacy during Christian times. Though St. Paul had set out to Yalvaça (Antiocheia) from Tarsus, he decided to come to Lystraya and addressed his sermons there. In the very first year one of the ten apostles Artemus became a pishop in Lystra. Today traces of settlement have been witnessed at Lystra ruins.
Ulu Mosque (Center): The mosque is the most ancient of the mosques located in the city center of Urfa province. As the structure was an old synagogue, it was transformed into the St. Stephon Church by the Bishop Rabula whom had died between A.D. 435 - 436. The structure was named as the Scarlet Church as there are numerous scarlet colored pillars inside and the mosque was constructed instead of the structure between 1170 - 1175 years by Nurettin Zengi.
The mosque is inside the multi - pedestal mosques group of the Anatolia and is covered with parallel three rows of diagonal vaults at the side showing Mecca and has a rectangular construction plan. The last congregation location covered with diagonal vaults standing on the ranks and opening to a fourteen pointed arched courtyard is initially used at the Sanliurfa Ulu Mosque in Anatolia. The octagonal bell tower of the structure serves as a minaret nowadays.
The Cave in Which Prophet Ibrahim was Born and Mevlid-i Halil Mosque (Center): Prophet Ibrahim was born inside a cave located at the south of the courtyard of the Mevlid-i Halil Mosque. According to the rumors, the monarch of the period, Nemrut dreams. In the morning he tells his dream to his astrologers. As the astrologers tell him that a child who will born in this year would end your reign, Nemrut orders to kill all of the male children that would be born during that year. The wife of Azer, the idealist of the palace gives birth to Prophet Ibrahim secretly in this cave. Prophet Ibrahim lived in this cave until he reaches the age seven. The water found in the cave of prophet Ibrahim is believed to be curative and that the waters cure numerous diseases.
Balikli Lake (Halil-ur Rahman and Ayn-i Zeliha Lake, Center): The Lake is located inside the city center and has the appearance of a natural aquarium with the fishes swimming inside the waters and with the centuries old plane trees and willow trees. The lakes are two in number; Ayn-i Zeliha and Halil-ur Rahman. As Prophet Ibrahim begins to struggle with the monarch of the period Nemrut and with the idols that his folk worships and begins to break and destroy such idols defending the idea of a single god, he was cast into fires by Nemrut from the location which is known as the Sanliurfa Castle. As the God himself orders the fire as "O fire, be cool and secure to Ibrahim.", the fire turn into water and the stones turn into fishes. The place where Prophet ?brahim falled is named as "Halil-ur Rahman Lake". The step daughter of Nemrut Zeliha falls in love with Prophet ?brahim. Zeliha begs and prays for Prophet Ibrahim to his step father Nemrut. As she realizes that Prophet Ibrahim is fallen into fire, she casts herself into the fire. The place where Zeliha falled is called as “Ayn-i Zeliha Lake“.
St. Eyyup Prophet and His Position (Center): It is rumored that St. Eyyup prophet was born in the desniye village of the country called as the upper land located between Sam and Ramla in Syria in B.C. 2100. Prophet Eyup who was infected with the leprosy disease continues to suffer in a cave with his wife named Rahime and never gives up to worship and pray God. In spite of all of his sufferings, he never betrays or rebels to his God. At last, Prophet Eyyup passes the exam, he cures his disease with the curative water stated to him by the God, he continues to live for a long time with his wife and children granted to himself. The cave in which Prophet Eyyup had suffered in the name of God is visited as the position of the Prophet Eyyup.
Old Omeriye Mosque (Center): The mosque is located at the city center of Sanliurfa and as the present epitaphs and inscriptions state to the period of restoration, the exact construction date is unclear. According to the rumors of the folk, it was stated that the mosque was constructed by St. Omer. According to the inscription located at the eastern wall of the final congregation location, the mosque was repaired in 1301 by Muhammed Aga. The date stated in this inscription proves that the Omeriye mosque is the one of the oldest mosque of Urfa.
Halil-ur Rahman Mosque (Doseme Mosque- Makam Mosque-Center): The mosque is located at the southwest corner of the Halil-ur Rahman lake and is in the form of a Kulliye composed of a mosque, a theological school, a graveyard and the position where Prophet Ibrahim falled when he was cast into fire. The mosque was constructed on the area where the Mother Mary Church was constructed in A.D. 504 (Byzantine period) by the financial assistance of Urbisius in the name of monotheists in the 13th century during the period of Eyyubi civilization. At the inscription located at the western side of the stone minaret adjasent to the southeast corner of the mosque, it was stated that the mosque was constructed in 1211 by the order of Melik Esref Muzafferiddin Musa of the Eyyubi reign.
Rizvaniye Mosque (Zulumiye Mosque-Center): The mosque is located at the northern side of the Halil-ur Rahman lake and was constructed instead of the St. Thomas Church of the Byzantine Period by the Governor of Rakka of the Ottoman Empire Rizvan Ahmet Pasha in 1716.
St. Eyyup, St. Elyasa and Rahime Hatun Mausoleums (Eyyup Nebi Village-Viransehir): It is rumored that the burial location of the Prophet Eyyup is located at the Eyyup Nebi Village which is 12 kilometers away from the Viransehir district. Prophet Eyyup is saved from his woulds after a seven year suffrage as he baths with the curative waters granted by the God. After that, he lives in Eyyup Nebi Village with his wife, Rahime Hatun. Mausoleums of the both persons are located inside this village.
The grave of St. Elyasa whom had walked for three months in order to see Prophet Eyyup and died before seeing him although he was so close is also located in this village. According to the rumors, when IV. Murat is on his military campaign to Baghdath, he had a break in Eyyup Nebi Village and stays for one night. He dreams that “ the place where you rest is the position of Prophet Eyyup. Build a mosque and a mausoleum to the location where your horse whinns and hits his leg three times to the ground when you awoke”.
Again according to another rumor told by the local folk, there is a holy and sacred rock mass located inside the borders of the village to which Prophet Eyyup had applied his back. The visitors of Prophet Eyyup initially visit the mausoleum of St. Elyasa (Prophet Eyyup had told that, "The ones that are coming to visit my mausoleum would visit the mausoleum of St. Elyasa first.") , later they visit the mausoleum of Prophet Eyyup, later on the mausoleum of Rahime Hatun and finally the holy stone to which Prophet Eyyup had applied his back.
City of Suayb (Harran): The city is located 45 kilometers away from Harran and the present ruins belong to the Roman Period. Numerous structures was constructed from shear stone blocks over hundreds of rock mausoleums. Only some wall sections and the foundation ruins of the structures managed to withstand the destruction of the passing time and reached to the present day. A cave located among the ruins of the Suayb city is known as the position of the Prophet Suayb .
Ulu Mosque (Harran): The Ulu Mosque is located at the northeast side of the Harran Tumulus and was constructed between 744 - 750 years by the Emevi Monarch II. Mervan. It is assumed to be in the form of a Kulliye with its famous theological school, bathhouse and hospital. The mosque is one of the oldest and largest mosques of Anatolia and therefore it is an important creation. The mosque was restored and repaired during the Seljukian Period and displays beautiful samples of stone masonry and stone decoration arts.
Der - Yakup Church (The Throne of Nemrut - Center): This structure was constructed at the west part of the Urfa Castle at the Damlacik ridge and it is a known fact that the structure is one of the first churches constructed in Anatolia after the birth of Christianity. The church was assumed to be constructed by the Suryani folk whom had accepted to become Christians in A.D. 38 year. The place is also called as the Throne of Nemrut as well as the tomb of Nemrut. The folk names the place as the Apgarin Mountain. The Suryani folk used the call the place as Deyro D Nalsotho (Monastery of the Spirits).
Deyr-i Mesih (Church of Jesus - Center): This church is located in the Tilfindir Quarter. The church is one of the first churches constructed in the history of Christianity and was constructed by Suryani folk in A.D. 38. Famous Turkish wanderer Evliya Celebi had written that Prophet Jesus had come to Urfa and visited this church and therefore the place is called as Deyr-i Mesih (Church of Jesus).
The Hebrews are counted as one of the most ancient nations on the world with their religious beliefs and languages and this nation is also the first nation to understand and apply the belief of single god. The Jewish nation originated from the Sami nation is told in the Holy Book. According to the Pentateuch, Prophet Ibrahim who was leading the Yehova Hebrews was told as " Take your tribe and leave your father land (The city of Ur, Urfa in the present day), travel to the country that I will show you. There, I will make your tribe a great nation.” By the God. Again in the Pentateuch, it is told as "Abram was 75 years old when he left Harran." The scientific authorities claim that the house of Prophet Ibrahim was located among the ruins which are at the northern ridge of the tumulus standing in the middle of the city.
Buyuk Imaret Mosque (Hatuniye / Ayse - Gulbahar Hatun Mosque-Center): The mosque was constructed in the name of the mother of Yavuz Sultan Selim, Ayse - Gulbahar Hatun in 1514 inside a Kulliye complex near Zagnos Bridge. This mosque holds a special place among the other Turkish Creations in Trabzon. The mosque enters into the group of “mosques with lodges of dervishes” that form a separate plan type in the early period Ottoman Architecture. The “courtyard” which is almost always encountered in the mosques with lodges of dervishes is not present in this mosque. The stonemasonry of the walls are important. The minaret located at the west side is in the classical Ottoman minaret style.
Fatih Mosque (Ortahisar Mosque - Panaghia Chrysocephalos Church-Center): The structure is known as the major church of Trabzon and is located in the Ortahisar quarter. It is assumed that the church was constructed over the ruins of an ancient Roman temple by Hanmibalianos, the nephew of Roman Emperor Constantin (A.D. 325 - 364).
The church is known as "the Cathedral of the Comnens " and as a depiction to the Mother Mary, it was named as the "Golden head". The reason for naming the church with the name “Golden head” is that in painting of the Mother Mary which is located on the apsis shaped semi-circle, the moiré of Mother Mary is coated with gold. After the conquest of Trabzon by Turkish forces in 1461 the structure was transformed into a mosque. Some of the researchers compare the church with the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul...
Carsi Mosque (Center): This mosque is located in the Kemeralti Carsi quarter and is the biggest mosque of Trabzon province. The mosque was constructed by one of the governors of Trabzon Hazinedarzade Osman Pasha in 1839. The marvelous stonemasonry of the structure is attractive.
Iskender Pasha Mosque (Center): The mosque is located behind the Trabzon Town Hall in the Taksim Square. The structure is known to be constructed in 16th century by the Governor of Trabzon Iskender Pasha. Various attachments had been constructed to the mosque in various times and have a beautiful stonemasonry.
Ayasofya Church (Haghia Sophia Church-Center): The church is located inside a monastery complex which is two kilometers from west of Trabzon province. It is assumed to be constructed by the King of Commenos State I. Manuel between the dates in 1238 - 1263. The four pillared and three abscissa chapel located to the north is dated earlier than the structure.
The Hagia Sophia of the Trabzon is the most important structure of late Byzantine Period of the region. The structure was transformed into a mosque in the period of III. Murat in 1670 by Beylerbeyi Ali Bey. The structure was restored between the dates of 1958 - 1962 by the cooperation of Edinburg University and Charitable Foundations General Directorate and entered into service as a museum in 1964. The structure has a beautiful stonemasonry. It is also very rich in stone decorations and frescos.
The church has depictions as; the banishment of Adam and Eve from heaven, Mother Mary sitting on the throne, The ascend of Jesus to the sky, the birth of St. Jesus, the miracles of St. Jesus, The last supper of St. Jesus, the descend of St. Jesus to hell, the baptism, the symbols of Bible writers. The church also contains decorations like single headed eagle, unnatural creatures, geometric plant like decorations and bird figures. Especially the multi colored niches, pillar titles at the western side and the geometric patterned medallions at the northern side are the samples of Seljukian stone decoration art.
St. Anna Church (Kucuk Ayrasil Church-Center): The church is located on the Mara? Street of Trabzon Province and is one of the oldest churches of the province. It is actually a triple nef basilica. There is a Byzantine emboss and a repair inscription belonging to the I. Basil between the dates in 884 - 885 on the entrance gate.
Sumela Monastery (Mother Mary Monastery, Macka): The monastery is located 17 km. from south of Macka district on a steep side of the Mother Mary Valley, 250 meters above the valley bottom inside a cave. The monastery could only be reached after a hard and long climbing but the wonderful landscape and spectacle of the monastery worth all efforts for climbing. There are numerous rumors relevant with the initial foundation of the monastery. The most common among these rumors is that the foundation of the monastery was laid by the monk Barnabas from Athens and his nephew Sophrenios.
The Sumela Monastery had been identified with a Portrait of Mother Mary which was painted by St. Luke since the first foundation period and which is rumored to be create miracles. According to the rumors, Barnabas and his nephew comes to Trabzon having the Portrait of Mother Mary and the childhood of Jesus, which is said to be painted by St. Luke. Here they gather volunteer laborers whom would assist them in the construction of the monastery and then reach to Degirmendere (Altindere in Pyxites region) of Macka district.